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  1. Flow through pipes of differing diameters under laminar and turbulent flow conditions.
  2. Investigations of the flow/pressure drop relationship for an annular pipe.
  3. Investigation of pressure drops across various fittings enabling the results to be used to predict resistance coefficients or equivalent lengths.
  4. Investigation of various methods of flow measurement including variable area meter (Rotameter)
  5. Comparison of pressure drops across two different types of valve (ball valve and gate valve) under different conditions of valve opening.



FRICTION LOSS IN PIPES apparatus allows the student to study flow through pipes and fittings.
Investigate the relationship between flow and pressure drop and plot values of friction factor against Reynold’s number, such as branches and bends. The apparatus consists of a set of parallel pipes and valves to obtain a wide variation of flow rates. Pressure tapings are provided at appropriate points to measure the head loss over the standard lengths of differing pipe. The first pipe which acts as a feed pipe to the five manifold pipes contains a suitable flow meter to measure the water flow rate. Three different types of pipes made of copper, aluminum and PVC are used to measure the friction coefficient and compare between them. The other pipes contain different types of valves are used to study the loss coefficient through these valves. A sudden enlargements and contractions at different diameters are included.

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